Buildings from the Gulf Countries; Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirate, Kuwait, Oman and the Kingdom of Bahrain are consuming the Biggest Percentage of the fossil energy production. In fact, the electrical energy consumption is increasing at a very high rate due to the rise in population and the huge growth of urban settlements. Bahrain produces 2800 MW of energy and 140 million gallons per day of desalinated water using fossil fuel as the primary energy supply. In 2009, a consultation committee was created with a view to establishing a solar and wind hybrid project with a capacity of between 5 and 3 MW. Bahrain ratified the Kyoto Protocol in May 2006. However, the state remains heavily dependent on the petroleum industry. Petroleum revenues constitute about two-thirds of government revenue and export earnings. Hydrocarbons also provide the basis for Bahrain’s two big businesses; refining and aluminium smelter.
Additionally, at Bahrain as with other countries across the GCC, electricity production is heavily subsidized and supplied at a cost that’s far less than the price of its generation. Cheap electric energy cost may not encourage individuals to lower their energy intake. Lately the Water and Electricity Authority in the Kingdom of Bahrain is in the process to improve the price of the water and electricity, this might assist in decreasing electricity and water intake. Approximately, 60% of the generated electrical energy in Bahrain is absorbed in buildings, and the remaining percentage is absorbed by the rest of the industries, i.e. business, transportation, communication, agriculture etc.. Furthermore, buildings, including bigger ones such as the Melbourne Stadium, contributes to 30% of carbon dioxide and 25% of nitrogen oxide found in the air. Currently, the vast majority of the energy is created from non-renewable fossil fuel resources, i.e. gas and oil. With uncertainty over the availability of oil and gas productions into the future, increasing requirements for fossil energy and raising the emission of CO2 that’s causing considerable climatic fluctuations. Due to this global warming, there is a very important need for reducing the emission of CO2.
As such, in Bahrain, there is an emphasis on using renewable energy sources for the buildings. This brings several implications for its infrastructure surrounding city planning and construction, with the two most prominent ones listed below:
a). Energy Efficient Architectural Design
Architects and designers must embrace energy efficient architectural design strategies with the aim of using the natural method to decrease energy requirements. Energy conservation measures, and passive solar design techniques which ought to be implemented, comprise; optimal construction orientation in connection with sunlight movement and prevailing wind direction, sufficient thermal insulation, use of reflected glass for openings, sun protection and appropriate sealing devices… etc.. When energy efficient architectural design or the so-called passive solar power fails to offer optimum thermal comfort requirement renewable energy technology can be adopted.
Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that is accumulated from sources that are naturally replenished on a human time scale, such as sun, rain, wind, tides, waves and geothermal heat. Renewable energy frequently provides energy in four important areas: electricity production, water and air heating and cooling, transport and rural energy services. Based on REN21’s 2016 report, renewable energies contributed 19.2% and 23.7percent to people’ global energy consumption and the generation of electricity in 2014 and 2015, respectively.
The key renewable energy sources which are being widely utilized in buildings are photovoltaic’s (active solar energy) and wind power. Solar cells when properly located on walls and roofs can provide a fantastic proportion of electrical energy which could be utilized for different indoor activities. The solar power falling on the solar panels shall be converted to a D.C. electric current which could be transformed to A.C electrical current ready to be used by any electric appliances. The production of electricity by photovoltaic‘s is getting considerable attention by engineers and scientists, and also a lot of developments is in progress with the objective of increasing the efficiency of electric energy generation and reducing the capital and running cost.
b). Wind Energy
The wind moves vertically due to a difference in pressure, from high-pressure zone to a lower pressure zone, and moves vertically as a result of the difference in temperatures. In fact, wind exists since the sunlight heats the surface of the earth. The temperature of air molecules which are connected to the heated surface of the earth will increase, their density will decrease and become lighter and will move upward being replaced by cooler molecules. This air movement will continue as long as the sun shines. Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into alternate forms of energy, including wind turbines to the production of electric wind power, windmills for mechanical power, and wind pumps for water pumping or drainage. Wind electricity was used by mariners to move boats and ships, and by farmers to grind their grains and pump water. Lately, more people are using wind turbines to generate electricity which provides power for all kinds of buildings, including the formal venues you would find in Melbourne. The wind is clean energy that produces no air or water contamination.
Advantages and disadvantages of wind energy technologies can be summarized as follows;
Wind energy is a green energy supply. Harnessing wind energy doesn’t pollute the environment nearly as much as fossil fuels, coal and nuclear power do.
The potential for wind power is absolutely incredible. Harnessing wind energy can be carried out almost anywhere, and can be used as a power source for all kinds of buildings. Provided that it generates enough energy to power and sustain the building (dependent on the location of the wind energy generator), wind energy can power up anything from the lighting in your own homes to a stretch of retail leasing properties.
Wind energy is a renewable source of energy. Earth is naturally occurring and there is not any way we could empty the energy resources.
The wind is unpredictable and the availability of wind power isn’t constant. Wind energy is therefore not ideal as a baseload energy supply if we had a cost-effective way of storing wind energy that the situation could differ.
We can expect for discoveries in energy storage technology in the future, but without the detectors have to be utilised in tandem with other energy resources.
Birds, bats and other flying creatures have slender chances to of surviving when shooting a direct hit from a rotating wind turbine.
Noise is a problem; for some people who live in the proximity of wind turbines, building wind turbines in urban surroundings, or areas where office leasing properties are concentrated in, should be avoided